University of Szeged, Faculty of Law Where knowledge and challenge meet

Faculty of Law and Political Sciences  --  Faculty Units  --  Departments  --  Hungarian Legal History  --  Courses
Special course
Hungarian Constitutional History

2010/11 academic year, autumn semester; lecture (2 hours/week, 3 credits) and seminar (one hour/week, 1 credit)






Course materials


6-7 September



The establishment of the state, the first Hungarian monarch, central organs of the government power


TK. 48-64; 91-106; 120-135; 166-167; 170-176, 241


13-14 September



The formation of the national assembly, its organization and operation


TK. 107-111


20-21 September



The characteristics of the administrative organization I


TK. 144-181


27-28 September



The characteristics of the administrative organization II


TK. 65-73, 111-119; 135-143


4-5 October



The organization of justice and public records until 1848

TK. 182-209


11-12 October




The laws of April 1848

Acts IV-V of 1848.


TK. 235-252; 319-320; 342-344


18-19 October



The laws of April 1848

Acts III-XVI, XXIII of 1848


TK. 369-375, 396-398; 402-406; 412-414


18-22 October


First in-class written examination



25 October-

1 November


Autumn break




8-9 November



The form of government of neo-absolutism

The public law foundations of the Compromise of 1867

Act XII of 1867


TK. 253-259.; 398-401;

260-280; 320-324; 333-342; 344-347; 358-362; 402-406


15-16 November



Reforms in public administration

Act LCII of 1870

TK. 382-394; 401; 411-412; 414-416; 418


22-23 November



Reforms in public administration

Act XVIII of 1871

Budapest as capital town and royal seat


TK. 382-394; 418-419; 419-422


29-30 November



The transformation of the legislative organization

Act IV of 1869


TK. 401, 425-427; 428-438


29 November,

3 December


Second in-class written examination



6-7 December



Changes in constitutional law, 1918-1920


TK. 296-300; 316-317; 324-326; 347-348, 375-377; 423-424


13-14 December



Changes in constitutional law

Act I of 1920, Act XXVI of 1925

Act XXII of 1926

Act I of 1946


TK. 280-295; 317; 326-331; 348-351; 362-369; 416-417; 422-423


13-14 December


Grading of the in-class written examinations










Course materials:

Mezey, Barna (ed.) Magyar alkotmánytörténet [The History of the Hungarian Constitution]. Osiris, 2005,

as well as the content of the lectures and consultation.


Recommended readings:

Ruszoly, József: Újabb magyar alkotmánytörténet [The Modern History of the Hungarian Constitution] 1848-1949. Selected essays. Püski, Budapest, 2002. (pp. 7-66; 94-105; 120-132; 207-294)

Participation at the seminars is mandatory. Each student is permitted two absences during the semester. In case a student misses more than two seminar sessions, he or she is required to report on the material missed in a matter prescribed by the instructor. Five or more absences from the seminars cannot be made up for.

Students are required to complete two in-class written examinations during the semester successfully. An in-class written examination is considered as successful if the student provides correct answers to at least 60% of the questions.

Unsuccessful in-class written examinations can be re-taken once during the term session.

If a student fails to meet the requirements of the in-class written examinations, the failing grade will be entered on his or her academic records, after which he or she may attempt get a better grade during the examinations session in accordance with the Academic and Examination Rules and Regulations.



Szeged, 2 September 2010


Prof. Dr. Mária Homoki-Nagy

Hungarian History of Law Time-table (Syllabus)


Hungarian History of Law

Second Semester of the Academic Year 2010-2011


1-2 February

Personal Rights in Feudal Private Law

Coursebook p86-96.

8-9 February

History of Litigation in Feudal Private Law

Coursebook p405-441.

15-16 February

Fields of Family Law in Feudal Private Law

Coursebook p142-152.

22-23 February

Fields of Real-Estate and Property Law in Feudal Private Law

Coursebook p97-117.

1-2 March

Feudal Criminal Law and History of Codification

Coursebook p263-311, 312-324.

8-9 March

Fields of the Law of Obligations in Feudal Private Law

Coursebook p118-130.

15-16 March

1st written test


22-23 March

Fields of Inheritance Law in Feudal Private Law

Coursebook p130-141.

29-30 March

“Code of Csemegi”

Coursebook p324-356.

5-6 April

Spring vacation


12-13 April

Personal rights and Family Law in Modern Private Law

Coursebook p167-171., p227-235.

19-20 April

Law of Real-Estate in Modern Private Law

Coursebook p171-179.

26-27 April

History of Civil Procedure

Coursebook p442-466.


2nd written test


3-4 May

Law of Obligations in Modern Private Law

Coursebook p179-188.

10-11 May

Inheritance Law in Modern Private Law

Coursebook p188-190.


Test for correction




  1. Obligatory Literature (Coursebook): MEZEY, Barna: Magyar Jogtörténet, Osiris Budapest 2007
  2. Sources of materials of the main lectures and the consultations


Presence at the small courses is obligatory. In any case a student is absent for more than two occasions from the small course, the student must elaborate a presentation determined by the lecturer of the small course. If absence from the small course exceeds 5 occasions, the student has no possibility to complete the small course of Hungarian History of Law with qualification “succeeded”. In such case, the course is qualified as “not succeeded”.

Each student has to pass the two written tests qualified as “sufficient” (grade 2) in order to consider the small course completed at the end of the semester.


Szeged, 1 February 2010. Prof. Dr. Mária HOMOKI-NAGY

The History of Specialized Administration in the Bourgeois Era


Course objectives:

The study of specialized administration is indispensable in order to understand the administrative organization of the bourgeois era. In the framework of this elective seminar building on the course “Hungarian Constitutional History” and aimed at familiarizing students with the particular part of administrative law, students gain an insight into the history of special administration in the dualistic era.



Acquiring the knowledge, at an acceptable level, presented in the course of the lectures and in the source materials identified. The course lasts for one semester, consisting of one lecture per week, and concludes with a written examination.


List of topics discussed:

  1. The emergence of specialized administration and its place in the state organization of the dualistic era.
  2. Emigration and jurisdiction.
  3. Social and child protection administration.
  4. Healthcare administration.
  5. Law enforcement and fire protection administration.
  6. Financial administration.
  7. Traffic administration.
  8. Citizenship and vital records administration.
  9. Industrial administration.
  10. Agricultural and nature protection administration.
  11. Educational and cultural administration.
  12. Religious administration.


Required readings:

Iván Meznerics, Lajos Torday: A magyar közigazgatás szervei [The organs of Hungarian public administration]. Budapest. 1937.


Ajánlott irodalom:

Károly Kmety: A magyar közigazgatás és pénzügyi jog kézikönyve [The manual of Hungarian administration and financial law]. I. Budapest, 1911


Szeged, 6 November 2008


Dr. Norbert Varga

assistant professor

The History of Basic Rights


Course objectives:

The study of the regulations concerning basic rights is indispensable in order to understand the state organisation emerging as a result of the bourgeois transformation. In the framework of the elective seminar building upon the courses “Hungarian Constitutional History” and “Constitutional Law,” students gain an insight into the history and practice of basic rights via the provisions of law and legal cases pertaining to these, with special attention to a comparative analysis of European and American antecedents.


The course lasts for one semester, consisting of one lecture per week, and concludes with a written examination.


List of topics discussed:

  1. The emergence of basic rights in Europe and in the USA.
  2. The equal status of citizens. Policy toward national minorities.
  3. The right of personal liberty.
  4. The right to property.
  5. Freedom of the press.
  6. Right of assembly and association.
  7. Freedom of education.
  8. Freedom or religion.
  9. Citizenship law in the 18-19th centuries
  10. Citizenship law in the 20 century
  11. The emergence of economic, social and cultural rights.
  12. The history of third-generation rights.


Required readings:

Barna Mezey, Zoltán Szente (editors): Európai parlamentarizmus- és alkotmánytörténet [European parliamentary and constitutional history]. Budapest, 2003. pp. 496-503.

Móricz Trócsányi: Magyarország közjoga [Hungarian Public Law]. Budapest, 1940. pp. 129-229.



Szeged, 15 May 2008




Dr. Norbert Varga

assistant professor

Acts and Codes in Medieval Hungary


Course objectives: Since in the course of their studies in the history of law students hear about legislative acts and the developments in common law only in the form of lectures, there is no time or way for them to obtain direct familiarity with them, this course set as its objective the examination and analysis of some major legal documents. Similar courses can also be found in the curriculum of other universities. In the second semester of the 2005-2006 academic year, we will examine the topics listed below up to 1526. In subsequent semesters, we will continue this survey until 1950.


1. The Acts of King (Saint) Stephen I.

The emergence and origin of the laws: Hungarian common law, German and Byzantine elements


2. The Golden Bull

Its emergence, European connections, analysis of certain points, social context, subsequent developments.


3-4. The Law Code of Buda

Its origins, connections with municipal codes in other European towns, analysis according to certain branches of law, influence on town law in Hungary.


5. Decretum maius

Its origin, the analysis of articles, its place in medieval Hungarian legislation.


6-7. Werbőczy’s Tripartitum

The book laws, international contexts, analysis according to certain branches of law, individual legal institutions discussed and their influence.


Szeged, 5 November 2007



Prof. Dr. László Blazovich

Cases from the juridical practice in the 18th and 19th century


Aim of the course:


The most basic goal of legal sciences is to give theoretical foundations to students. However, it is without doubt that there is a growing need among students for the knowledge of practical means. We are fulfilling the need by introducing the cases from the juridical practice of special fields of law from a historical perspective. By doing so, it becomes possible to show how in the system of customary law each legal solutions and techniques evolved, what was the role of so-called “sommás” and written procedure and what were the major evidences courts considered while delivering their decisions.


Syllabus of the course:


  1. Litigation and procedure in the 18th and 19th century. Evidences applied in the so-called summary and written procedure. Parts of the written procedure.
  2. Cases from Real-Estate/Property Law

Action in rem

Action of assize

Division and its legal consequances

Certain easements

  1. Cases from the practice of the application of different types of contracts

Contract of sale

Mortgage deed

Contract of tenancy

Enterprise “deed”

Contract of service

Other contracts

  1. Cases from inheritance law

Intestate succession

Testamentary succession

  1. Cases from the Law of Family
  2. Types of crimes and their evaluation in practice


Obligatory literature: Barna MEZEY: Magyar Jogtörténet. Budapest. 2006., furthermore the handouts given to the students in the courses.



Szeged, 5 November 2007




Prof. Dr. Mária HOMOKI-NAGY

History of administrative jurisdiction


The curriculum of the course embraces the two centuries-old history of Hungarian and international administrative jurisdiction. By determining the time limits of the subject, besides the importance of theoretical aspects, it was of huge importance to shed light on the tendencies and questions of administrative protection that are even nowadays effective and bring the attention of the students.

This optional course is connected by its theme to the main courses History of Constitutional Law and History of Administrative Law. The lectures held during this optional course consider and base their materials on the main courses of History of Constitutional Law and History of Law.

In accordance with credit requirements, the optional course lasts for a semester, one lecture each week, the total of 12 lectures. At the last occasion, the students must complete a written essay. Participation rules are in accordance with rules set up for the main course.


Detailed program and literature:

  1. Basic questions and terms. Administrative protection: its definition, special Hungarian and European features
  2. Forms, structures and jurisdictions of the administrative tribunal
  3. Hungarian academic debates about the Administrative Court
  4. Evolvement of the Financial Administrative Jurisdiction
  5. The Financial Administrative Court in operation
  6. European situation of the administrative protection in the 19th century
  7. Foundation of the Administrative Court of General Jurisdiction in Hungary
  8. Features of the Act 1896 (1896:XXVI)
  9. Administrative jurisdiction during the era of Dualism
  10. Administrative protection during the First World War and the Revolutions
  11. Features of the Hungarian and international administrative jurisdiction between the two world wars
  12. Abolition of the administrative jurisdiction, situation of the administrative jurisdiction after 1949




Puky Endre: A jogérzet válsága és a közigazgatási bíráskodás. Magyar Szemle 1940. 38. évf. 113- 121.; Concha Győző: A közigazgatási bíráskodás. Magyar Igazságügy 1881. 359-491.; Boér Elek: Közigazgatási bíráskodás Bp. 1907.; Gruber Lajos: A közigazgatási bíráskodás eszméje, kellékei és alakzatai Európában. Bp. 1877.; Martonyi János: A Közigazgatási bíráskodás bevezetése, szervezete és hatékonysága Magyarországon. (1867-1949) Acta jur. et Pol. Szeged 1972.; Szabó József: Demokrácia és közjogi bíráskodás. Bp. 1946. 16-17, 173.; Csorba János: A közigazgatási bíróság, mint alkotmányvédő bíróság. Bp. 1945.; Ádám Antal: A közigazgatás és a közigazgatási bíráskodás alkotmányjogi összefüggéseiről. Magyar Közigazgatás 1996. december, XLVI. évf. 12. szám.; Petrik Ferenc: Százéves a közigazgatási bíráskodás. Jogtudományi Közlöny 1996. 9. sz.; Zsuffa István: A közigazgatási bíráskodás Magyarországon. Magyar Közigazgatás 1996.7. sz.; Patyi András: Közigazgatási bíráskodásunk modelljei. Bp., 2002; Trócsányi László (ifj.): Milyen közigazgatási bíráskodást? Bp., 1992.


Szeged, 30 October 2007 Prof. Dr. István STIPTA

History of Commercial Law


Commerce had been strongly influential activity of humanity and for this reason customs and regulations early appeared in each legal systems. Commerce required transparent and well-structured system of legal norms and this was the main cause for the codification as well. The history of European Commercial Law proves that lex mercatoria developed with and in parallel with Private Law but it is without doubt that it influenced Private Law. The goal of the optional course is to present the history of codification of Commercial Law, the operation of fields of Commercial Law and the major contracts of Commercial Law.




  1. Emergence of Commercial Law in the continental legal system
  2. Intentions for the codification of Commercial Law in Europe

a) Allgemeines Landrecht,

b) Code de commerce,

c) Allgemeines Deutsches Handelsgesetzbuch

  1. History of Hungarian Commercial Law in the Reform Era

a) Efforts relative for the elaboration of Code of Commerce. Works of Miklós Skerlecz, works of Commissions set up by Act of 1791 (1791: 67.) and Act of 1827 (1827:8.)

b) Commerce related acts of the Diet of 1840

  1. Commercial associations in Hungary

a) Ordinary partnership

b) Limited partnership

c) Private Limited Company

d) Co-op

  1. General conditions/terms of Commercial contracts
  2. Each Commercial contracts

a) Sale and purchase contract in Commercial Law

b) Contract of freight

c) Contract of consignee

d) Contract of insurance

e) Contract of publishing

  1. Exchange Law and the Tribunal of Exchange Law
  2. Procedure of Bankruptcy
  3. Overview of late developments in Commercial Law



Nagy Ferenc: A magyar kereskedelmi jog kézikönyve.

Kuncz Ödön. A magyar kereskedelmi és váltójog.


Szeged, 5 November 2007